The role of libraries towards national development: Lessons from other countries

Libraries make important contributions to national development. The significance of this article is to assess the roles libraries play in national development and support the advocacy for the inclusion of libraries and access to information in national development plans that will contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (“UN 2030 Agenda”) and the Africa we want (“AU 2063 Agenda”).

Libraries have shown that they can drive meaningful progress across agenda. The SDGs are universal; each country is responsible for the development and implementation of national strategies to achieve the SDGs, as well as monitor and evaluate the progress of achievement of these SDGs.

The inclusion of library communities in the development of national strategies will offer them the opportunity to contribute towards the advancement of development priorities. Advocacy is an essential tool used by libraries to justify their role as engines of local development, and ensure that they are resourced adequately to contribute towards national development by standing as a pillar in educating and repackaging information for better consumption and understanding by a targeted populace.

Declaration

In August, 2015, The Cape Town declaration was inspired by the principles enshrined in the charter for African Cultural Renaissance, the global sustainable development agenda and the level of commitment to prioritise and resource libraries as part of Africa agenda 2063. Hence, the deliberation on the status of libraries in the continent and the progress required to meet the global sustainable development goal.

Among the objectives (only four are listed here) to improve African libraries with the aim of contributing to national development. They are; providing the necessary resources for the development of African Libraries to respond to modern day challenges and provide access to merging technologies; fast tracking the implementation of continental innovation strategies to improve ICT and knowledge management; encouraging the sharing of skills, collection and preservation of African stories from our own communities and encouraging the development and promotion of local content libraries in Africa as part of the promotion of the African Renaissance and Pan Africanism.

GLA

The Ghana Library Association (GLA) was founded in 1962 and is registered under the professional body decree NRCD 143 of the 1973 with a registration number PB 21. The GLA has the mandate to unite all librarians and institutions in Ghana interested in library and librarianship

It is also to be instrumental in promoting the establishment and development of library and information services, bibliographical work and library co-operation, while also promoting and safeguarding the professional interest of librarians

In effect the GLA is the overall head of all libraries in Ghana, be it public, academic or special libraries. One would ask, is the GLA still functional? If yes, how effective, organised or united is it? As stated in the constitution of the association “to unite all librarians and institutions in library and “librarianship”.

Can Ghana realise agendas 2030 and 2063?

The success or failure of Ghana in the achievement of the targets set by both agenda is dependent on two main factors. These are a recognition of libraries and librarians as an engine of access to information (timely, well packaged, targeted and readily available and less expensive).

The second factor is that the advocacy and strategies adopted by the GLA should be in partnership with government and all stakeholders.

Libraries are proven to be cost-effective partners for advancing development priorities. Many countries have designated libraries to be repositories for vital information and knowledge. This makes libraries an important venue for information about personal development, hence; national development. Libraries are already supporting progress towards access to information and national building.

Promoting literacy

In goal two of the UN agenda and aspiration one of the AU agenda 2063, the objective is to eradicate poverty at all levels, in all walks of life. Other countries have relied on libraries to pass on valuable information to the prospective targets, example, in the attempt to increase the production and income for small-scale food producers or farmers.

In Romania, public library staff  trained under the Biblionet programme worked with other partners including the Association of Libraries of Romani (ANBPR), the Ministry of Culture, local and national government and public libraries across the country, Biblionet helped libraries to breathe new life into Romanian communities by helping 100,000 farmers to use ICT.

Could the Ghana Library Association and Ministry of Agriculture and other stakeholders learn something?  Is there no such thing in Ghana? Are both the Ministry of Agriculture and the GLA slumbering or is it a case of lack of creativity/innovation? If  efforts are already made by the GLA to play a key role in information dissemination, then it must be carried out as a matter of urgency. The cocoa and other cash crop production can gain an immense growth and advancement when such innovative ways are employed.

Promoting lifelong learning opportunities without limitations towards religion, gender and age. The UN agenda goal four and goal five and the AU agenda aspiration six, targets the development of people by ensuring quality, equitable education among all ages.

These targets seek to achieve the enhancement of the potentials in women and the youth not leaving out anyone. This is an education that would be sustainable and a lifelong journey. People will know where, how, when to find information, preserve and disseminate it without distortion.

Public libraries in Botswana have taken large strides towards supporting government objectives under its National Vision 2016, which includes introducing ICT access, improving the computer skills of library users, and enabling users to be successful in business, education and employment.  With this vision people trained in ICT can develop in so many ways in their diverse professions with access to readily available information.

Partnerships for literacy

When the government equips the GLA properly, providing enough budgetary support and infrastructure, libraries across the nation will stand as a meaningful tool to effect a long lasting change. All over the world, there has been practical success stories about library playing a key role in poverty alleviation,  education, better well-packaged information for farmers, improving the quality of lives and encouraging lifelong learning.

In Sri Lanka, the government and its partners initiated a programme called the Nenasala programme. This initiative is run to increase  digital literacy and access to information among the nations’ remote and poorest areas.

Nenasala (Wisdom Outlet) is a telecentre project by the Government of Sri Lanka. Developed under the e-Sri Lanka Initiative which was implemented by the ICT Agency of Sri Lanka. Communication centres are continuously built by the government in rural areas to fight poverty, develop culture and commerce, and sustain peace. There are 751 such centres in the country.

In Mongolia,  about 15,000 persons either with poor vision or blind are employed. In the year 2010, Ulaanbaatar Public Library (UPL) and the Mongolia National Association of the Blind built two recording studios to create talking books in a digital DAISY format that has increased the amount of accessible materials, and opened up new worlds of learning for the visually impaired people.

In conclusion, the significant contributions and usefulness of libraries and librarians cannot be over emphasised. In the attempt to achieve these goals and aspirations, policy makers, the government and the GLA should come together to form a formidable force with a core-defined path to follow to make our world better.

Williams Bandoma

The writer is a librarian at BlueCrest College Ghana and an information professional. His email is: bandomawills@ymail.com

Importance of Sports in Academic Development

Athletics have always been an essential component of a liberal education. Schools that offer more sports and field more successful teams produce higher test scores and graduation rates, research shows.

There is a relatively consistent body of research showing that students who participate in athletics tend to fare significantly better both in school and in later life. Participating in sports, like playing in the school band or competing on the debate team, are cognitively and organizationally demanding activities that help convey self-discipline and leadership skills. This is especially true for students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

In addition, it has also been found that schools that offer more sports and field more successful teams produce higher test scores and graduation rates. So, there is no reason to believe that schools that emphasize sports do so at the expense of other educational goals.

Academic learning and sports education are the complements of each other. They resemble the two sides of the same coin. If the sports education is carried out accompany with the academic curriculum, the over-all personality of the student are increased to greater extent. They get the qualities of the leadership, sharing, team spirit and tolerance from the sports. Sports education not only teaches the students to maintain the physical stamina, but also the habit of obedience, discipline, the determination to win, will power, etc. The power of reasoning, mental development, vocational specialization comes from the academics to the students. Therefore sports education along with the academics result in the mental, moral and physical development of the students.
The evidence above suggests students benefit from schools that offer a variety of enriching activities, including sports.

At BlueCrest University College Ghana, we always support activities that promote sports among all section of students. Our College is having its own Basketball and Football team, which has participated in university level tournaments in Ghana and multiple friendly matches with other universities.

Why Not Ghana?

As we witness the start of 2016, I am sure all of us in the education sector in Ghana would have done their analysis of business performance for 2015, which was affected by Ebola, impact of low oil prices on the economy, currency devaluation across Africa and many other factors which were not in an institution’s control. One of the major factor which impacted university enrollments across Ghana was turbulence in Nigerian economy. I am sure all of us agree on the fact that majority of the international students studying in Ghanaian private colleges (university colleges) are from Nigeria, any disturbance there is having a direct impact on the enrollment graphs in Ghana.

Despite these challenges, there were institutions that performed well by introducing innovative ideas in their recruitment and retention strategies. I remember one of the well-known institutions in Accra with majority of foreign students partnering with a bank to complete student’s verification process on their campus itself. This activity not only saved students time and money to verify their bank account to enable them to withdraw money from ATM in Ghana itself, but also benefited institution in reducing their default rate.  Without this, students were required to go back to their home country to complete the verification process.

But, is there such a big potential and sustained market existing in the tertiary sector and is there a scope of potential growth. If these factors exist, are we on the right track!! I tried to find out the potential markets in Africa and globally and took a clue into what other countries are dong to develop this sector as a mainstream contributor to their respective economies.

  • AFROL News (www.afrol.com) quoted that according to statistics published by Merill Lynch, the private higher education market will reach US$ 8 trillion by 2025. 
  • As per www.mgafrica.com, University World News cited a French government’s Campus Agency that noted that there were 380,376 African students were on the move in 2010, representing about a tenth of all international students worldwide and 6% of all African students.  

Good number of countries across the globe has developed themselves as a preferred destination for higher education for international students. Most of those countries have a strategic plan to make higher education attractive for international students which will eventually contribute significantly to their economy. Looking into the high number of African students crossing their national boundaries to get globally competitive higher education, I thought to check on the preparedness of some of those preferred or preparing to be preferred destinations.

Let me start by discussing about Mauritius. As per the Education Minister of Mauritius, country seeks 100,000 foreign students by 2020. Strategic plans developed by the country stressed on the development of Mauritius as one of the most preferred destination for higher education globally. The Government of Mauritius announced in 2015 that it had earmarked funds for the construction of five campuses in rural areas of the island, which otherwise are known more as a luxury holiday destination.  Mauritius government wants to transform higher education sector as one of the pillars of their economy.

But how is the Mauritius government planning to increase their international student strength from 1500 (from 65 countries; data as of 2014) to 100,000 by 2020? They are planning to do this by facilitating visa procedures, allowing full-time students to work, providing accommodation facilities and good infrastructure, developing new attractive study programmes for international students, starting a global marketing and public relations campaign and enhancing general conditions such as security aspects.

I would like to bring out more factors here, which will definitely help Mauritius achieve its target.

  • As per Tertiary Education Commission website, as of 2012, there were 71 higher education providers, as compared to 42 in year 2000.
  • Out of 71, 60 are private institutions.
  • Out of 45,969 students, representing 45% GER (Gross Tertiary Enrollment Ratio), 50% of the students were studying in the private institutions. It is to be noted that Mauritius has set itself a target of increasing the GER from current 45% to 72% by 2020.
  • Dedicated single window information portal to know more about studying in Mauritius. Portal managed by the government agencies responsible for improving international students enrollments in the country.
  • One of the most significant strategic goals (Strategic Plan 2013-2025) of the government is “Internationalisation of Higher Education”. Some of the key points in this are:
  • Implement marketing schemes to attract International students to study in Mauritius.
  • Encourage International tertiary institutions of high reputation, including renowned institutions among the top 500 universities to set up local campuses/units or partnerships in Mauritius.
  • Establish mutual recognition of qualification agreements on both bilateral and multilateral basis.
  • Encourage public-private partnerships to develop infrastructure projects for tertiary education.
  • Establish scholarships for international students to study in Mauritius.

If we discuss about South Africa, as per the numbers quoted by University World News about African students crossing their country to get higher education, South Africa gained the most in Africa. With over 15% students entering South African universities, it gained 57,321 international students in 2010 itself, which is much higher than UK, USA, Germany and Malaysia. According to www.mgafrica.com almost 18% of African students studying abroad are currently studying in South Africa, which has seen an 8% increase in international students since 2007. As of 2014, 68,000 international students were studying in South African universities.

If we talk about more developed nations, Australia, UK, USA, Germany, Norway and host of other European countries, their embassies and dedicated agencies for international student’s recruitment has been targeting Africans to register in their respective countries. Most of these countries have dedicated agencies which act as one point information centre for universities in their respective countries.

Does Ghana with a current tertiary GER of only 15.57% (2014, as per UNESCO Institute for Statistics) have a chance to challenge South Africa and attract more international students? As per data presented by Ministry of Education in June 2015, there were 10,383 international students representing merely 3.2% of 315,000 total university students. With over 81% of the total international students studying in private institutions, Ghana is among the top three destinations for tertiary education in Africa. But apart from these high accolade from international agencies, Ghana don’t have any dedicated agency like http://www.studymauritius.infohttp://www.australianuniversities.com.au, promoted by government to attract international students and implement marketing schemes to attract International students to study in Ghana. Ghanaian universities rely on their own innovative marketing and promotion schemes to attract international students and provide guidance to those prospective students.

If Ghana also sets up an agency like Mauritius, Australia, UK and other countries, I am very much sure that our universities which are very well competitive with our counterparts in other countries will be able to attract more international students. WHY NOT GHANA plan for 100,000 international students in its universities. It requires developing a strategic plan for tertiary education which can increase the number of international students in next 10 years and make Ghana as a preferred destination for higher education in Africa. If we do so, this sector will become one of a major pillar to the country’s economy too.

Increase in University Education access can lead to increase in Africa’s GDP

One of the top headlines in most of the news media nowadays is about unemployment. This topic of unemployment has also taken a key space in most of the speeches across the country in public and private universities.

A new report by the World Bank on unemployment in Ghana has revealed that about 48 percent of Ghanaians between the ages of 15-24 do not have jobs. (source: http://pulse.com.gh/business/unemployment-in-ghana-48-of-ghanaian-youth-jobless-world-bank-report-id5026856.html)

The report, “The Landscape of Jobs in Ghana”, touched on ways of finding opportunities for youth inclusion in Ghana’s labour market. “In Ghana, youth are less likely than adults to be working: in 2012, about 52% of people aged 15-24 were employed (compared to about 90% for the 25-64 population), a third were in school, 14% were inactive and 4% were unemployed actively looking for job. Young women in the same age group are particularly disadvantaged and have much higher inactivity rates that men: 17% of young female are inactive as opposed to 11% of males,” the report said.

But the lead researcher and senior economist with the World Bank, Sarah Johansen said the youth in the country could only be empowered to get or create jobs, if their educational foundation is solid.

“Ghana has been able to increase access to education. Now the issue is how to go to the next level and ensure that there is quality education. Because the skills you have at the end of secondary education is not maybe such a big problem, if you don’t have the labour market relevant skills; that you need to be able to acquire it. For that you need to have basic skills- so the question is have you learned those in school? And I think this is the issue that Ghana needs to be looking at now”

Higher education yields significant benefits for both African young people and society, as a whole: better employment opportunities and job prospects, improved quality of life, and greater economic growth. As the world becomes more technological, the school curriculums in Africa need to evolve to provide the right education and training for jobs in today’s workforce. A severe mismatch still exists between the skills of young African workers and the skills that employers need for today’s global workforce.

It is this skill gap persisting in this country, which needs to be addressed and I must say that BlueCrest College is committed to graduate workforce who can take up those available jobs. This has been made possible with sheer dedication of our academic staff and a fine blend of professional and academic qualification in our curriculum. Yes, we do face resistance sometimes, from different sectors on the blend in our curriculum, but at BlueCrest College, we believe that someone must stand up and take the lead to solve this problem of unemployment.

We should dream to create a world  where higher education doesn’t end with a degree, but starts at entry and continues through life, as the world changes around us, like a biological ecosystem. As access to higher education is increasing  significantly in Africa due to combination of full power of technology and the Internet with the best teaching and learning approaches in the world, institutions should work towards to craft a student-centered educational ecosystem.

I would like to bring out some key points from a report published by Africa-America Institute on State of Education in Africa for 2015 (Full Report available on:  http://www.aaionline.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/AAI-SOE-report-2015-final.pdf).

    • Today, only 6 percent of young people in sub-Saharan Africa are enrolled in higher education institutions compared to the global average of 26 percent.
    • The promising news is that universities in many African countries are experiencing a surge in their enrollment. Between 2000 and 2010, higher education enrollment more than doubled, increasing from 2.3 million to 5.2 million.
    • In 2008, about 223,000 students from sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled in tertiary education outside of their home countries, representing 7.5 percent of the total global number of students who study outside of their home country.

 

  • As per UNESCO and World Bank, A one-year increase in average tertiary education levels would raise annual GDP growth in Africa by 0.39 percentage points, and eventually yield up to a 12 percent increase in GDP.

 

  • Globally, public education expenditure accounts for 4.7 percent of the world’s $18 trillion GDP per capita. The Africa region devotes 5.0 percent of total GDP of about $1.5 trillion to public education expenditure, which is the second highest percentage after North America with a total $32 trillion GDP per capita and Europe at 5 percent with a total $24 trillion GDP per capita.
  • African countries have allocated the largest share of government expenditure to education at 18.4 percent, followed by East Asia and the Pacific at 17.5 percent; and South and West Asia allocated only 12.6 percent.

Above statistics on mass student’s movement to foreign countries for higher education validate my point that Ghana needs to be developed as a recipient of this mass movement. We need Study in Ghana policy by the Government to promote Ghana as one of the favoured destination for higher education in Africa. Made in Ghana degrees are having more credibility and recognition in Africa and beyond.  If Mauritius can target for 100,000 foreign students enrolment by 2020, WHY NOT GHANA?

Today, youth in Africa are the architects of their development, not just beneficiaries. The new model for development is focusing on partnerships — with governments, businesses, universities and civil society. We must join hands with strong and credible international partners to invest in local research and have industry relevant course structure. As private university college we fully support the same and have already taken significant steps to catalyze the growth.

Amid political turmoil, recession and a severe cash crunch in the Greek economy, there were a lot of companies that tripled its revenue with a team of young entrepreneurs with an average age of 29.

For students it’s not the time to get dragged into this unemployment debate going around and use employable skills and knowledge gained at universities to become successful entrepreneurs.

Our experience has been that the entrepreneurial spirit can shine through despite economic or political failure. Beyond the sheer determination to create and progress, maintaining a global perspective has been the most important ingredient in one’s success. There is no stronger antidote to the over-emphasized unemployment debate engulfing this region and students have all the tools to succeed.

Cloud Computing for Sustainable Development in Africa : 28-29 April, Accra, Ghana

Poster

The Countdown has started for the Mega Conference on Cloud Computing. Be there to learn more about Cloud! Save the Date: 28th – 29th April 2016, Accra International Conference Centre, Ghana.

International Conference on Advanced Trends in ICT and Management

Importance of Cloud Computing for Education Penetration and Development in Africa

Since last one decade or more, government across Africa has realised the importance of investment in building broadband capacity as a tool to economic development and this policy has been the centre to their growth policy. As per World Bank, for every 10 percent penetration of broadband in a developing economy, there is typically 1.38 percent increase in GDP. Access to internet in Africa is more influenced by mobile penetration, as more and more people tend to use their mobile phones to access internet, than their computers. Mobile penetration in some of the African countries are as high as 119%, which provides an excellent opportunity for businesses and organisations to reach them through mobile.
Cloud Computing as per the US National Institute of Science and Technology is “a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.” Or in a comman-man language it simply refers to consumption of infrastructure and application services on a utility basis, paid per unit consumed. As the Cloud becomes fundamental to the world of information and communications technology (ICT), it delivers major benefits for both low and high income countries.
Cloud Computing allows significant flexibility in the choice of end-user devices linking the user to information applications. Many institutions across globe use Cloud Computing to bring services to their patrons. Cloud applications enable centralised implementation of academic and administrative services on campus wide basis.
Ghana has always been an integral part of studies conducted by various agencies and service providers on implementation of Cloud in Africa. As early as 2006, HP and UNESCO launched a pilot project in Africa to create the first African regional university network through distributed computing and to help reduce the number of skilled workers, scientists, academics and researchers that leave the region. KNUST from Ghana was among the first five universities along with universities from Nigeria, Senegal, Algeria and Zimbabwe to be a part of this pilot project. In 2011 Ericsson lead a project to introduce Cloud Computing in school in Africa under their Connect to Learn initiative in which Ghana was a partner. 2014 report by Harvard Business Review Analytic Services “Business Agility in the Cloud” conducted a survey that found that 70% of organisations were using Cloud services.
Usage of Cloud Computing in education would bridge the technology and information divide between privileged and underprivileged institutions, as it allows access to educational resources to high number of learners, without having access to their desktops. Cloud Computing, especially with relation to mobile learning, will improve the current institutional system of education, and also the quality and affordability of education. Mobile broadband and Cloud Computing will bring far reaching changes in education in classrooms in Africa – for both students and teachers. Internet access not only provides a wealth of educational information for tutors and students attending schools but will also allows them to reach out to each other, and to the world.
Stakeholders in Cloud Computing should develop solutions which can be delivered across low speed networks also and focus on educational development and research across all section of the academic community. As per a Global Forecasts to 2020 by www.marketsandmarkets.com published in December 2015, Cloud Computing in education is going to be an industry worth USD 15.05 Billion by 2020 from USD 5.83 Billion in 2015, growing at an Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 20.8%. At this expected high growth rate, there exists an opportunity for institutions to take more advantage by incorporating this technological advancement into their day to day execution. This will not only enable efficient management of business processes and effective knowledge delivery to students, but also will result in higher student engagement, better collaboration among stakeholders, and improved student performance. It is quite commendable that some of the pubic and private universities in Ghana have already realised the importance of Cloud Computing within their setup and incorporated the same. Few among them are UPS, BlueCrest and Ashesi. Service providers, such as Google, IBM, Microsoft and Ericsson, have also taken keen interest in providing solutions to hosts of education institutions across continent and promoting research and development in Cloud Computing with institutions of higher learning.
All HE institutions across the continent must embrace Cloud Computing for reaching out to cross section of the academic community and also to reduce their cost of hosting expensive hardware and software applications at their site. Cloud is the way forward for a sustainable education development in Africa.

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To Teach Critical Thinking or Incorporate Critical Thinking in Teaching-Learning Process

After putting my thoughts together to start writing blogs on education scenario in Ghana, I encouraged myself to start with my own experience of encounters with academia in last few years.

One of the topics making round in the academic circle nowadays is critical thinking. Suddenly in the last couple of years, this “new” thinking approach has gained a lot of momentum in content development in private universities of Ghana. By heading one of private colleges here, I was also not left untouched with this force of critical thinking. I have always believed since my early days of career, that to think critically on any of the issues is a way to make effective and well informed decisions.

Through my interaction with numerous programme panels across multiple content development and approval processes, I was really energised by the strength in which almost all members emphasised on the importance of teaching Critical Thinking across all undergraduate programmes in Ghana. I also total agree on the importance of inculcating critical thinking ability in our students in Ghana which will improve upon their logical reasoning, thinking and judgment making ability, which is very important for their success in personal and professional life.  But is it important to teach this as a subject which students will study to get a better grade!!! I thought to do a critical thinking on this idea itself and used my online information searching ability to know more about what’s happening in and around the world on this issue.

These discussions excited me to do some more research over how this course is being taught and practically used by students across globe, more specifically in other tertiary developed African countries. Before I would go further, let me bring together some of the most commonly used definitions of Critical Thinking:

  • Oxford Dictionary defines Critical Thinking as ” the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgement”.
  • As per Businessdictionary.com Critical Thinking is “objective examination of assumptions (adopted riles of thumb) underlying current beliefs to assess their correctness and legitimacy, and thus to validate or invalidate the beliefs”. 
  • As per criticalthinking.org Critical Thinking is a rich concept that has been developing throughout the past 2500 years. The term ‘critical thinking’ has its roots in the mid-late 20th century“.

To help me analyse my findings, I tried to study the pattern of teaching Critical Thinking in universities in Ghana and in few other countries. Upon visiting websites of some of the universities in UK, I found that Critical Thinking is used as a process of teaching in most of European universities, rather than teaching critical thinking as a course.  As per University of Sussex website “critical thinking is at the heart of academic study, it’s more of a process, a way of thinking, understanding and expressing ourselves, than a single definable skill”. It further writes that “Fundamentally, critical thinking is about using your ability to reason.

As per University of Leeds website “critical thinking at university does not mean looking only for the most important aspects of a topic or just criticising ideas. It is also about not accepting what you read or hear at face value, but always questioning the information, ideas and arguments you come across in your studies.” “As a university student, you need to be able to think critically about the resources and information you use in your work. You need to ask the right questions when reading the work of others; your writing needs to show you have the ability to weigh up different arguments and perspectives and use evidence to help you form your own opinions, arguments, theories and ideas. Critical thinking is about questioning and learning with an open mind.

As per Bradford University website “Students who analyse theories, models, ideas and practices (TMIP) in an intelligent and objective way can gain good marks in assignments, compared to students who present accurate but just descriptive summaries of them.

After searching over information available on websites of multiple universities and colleges in UK, I hardly found any of them teaching Critical Thinking as a course, but all have Critical Thinking included as a medium of teaching-learning in all their programmes, across all faculties, on offer to increase the critical thinking ability of their students which eventually increases student’s participation in classroom.

I did the similar search through universities in South Africa, which gave a differing result. University of Cape Town offers Critical Thinking as a course in undergraduate programmes in Economics, Curatorship, Philosophy, Religious Studies and Information Systems. Critical thinking as a course is offered in the first year of the UG programmes in this university. As per information available on the website for other South African universities, they don’t offer Critical Thinking as a course or have mentioned about using Critical Thinking in their teaching-learning process.

Ghana seems to be far ahead if compared with their counterparts in South Africa. Most of the Ghanaian universities (private) offer Critical Thinking as a course in their undergraduate programmes. But unfortunately none of them have mentioned about using Critical Thinking as a tool for teaching-learning. Moreover I don’t see any agreement within all private universities in Ghana on which level to teach Critical Thinking in their UG programmes. This course is being taught in Level 100 in some of the universities, whereas other teaches them in level 200.

It was also revealed that Critical Thinking as a course is concentrated mostly in Business, Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology programmes.

These findings raise serious questions which we need to answer:

  1. What is the overall objective of curriculum developers in including Critical Thinking in UG programmes?
  2. If, at all it has to be offered, should it not be made to be offered at the first year of the programme of study?
  3. Why should be Critical Thinking taught as a course and not as a tool in teaching-learning?

It’s good that we want to adopt global courses in education in universities in Ghana, but we must also understand in this globalized world, our graduates must be equipped with logical and reasoning skills, they must be able to form their own opinion about well-established theories and facts and they must be able to provide solutions with multiple options for various problems. They must be able to question and justify their reasoning with facts. Can this be achieved by teaching only Critical Thinking as a subject, which students can pass, but not use? Or this has to be achieved through using Critical Thinking skills in teaching-learning process itself.

I feel that academic staffs and student, both should be trained on using Critical Thinking abilities in their programme of study at university and our focus should not be to only teach this as a course. This will definitely help in further improving quality of our graduates in Ghana.

Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way.” – www.criticalthinking.org

Blogger: Vivek Verma

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